This is not new, it has been around for a while now, but I thought it was important to document. Google AdWords sometimes shows local specific data on under each AdWords ad when either the advertiser calls for it or the searcher calls for it.
For example, a ny web design has listings on the right side that display "New York" or "New York, NY" underneath them. Now, I am currently in St. Louis, MO - so if I do a standalone search on web design I get some ads that end with "Missouri."
First case, I called, as the searcher, for new york based web design companies and the second case, I did not. In both, there were advertisers who set the local details in the AdWords campaigns. In the later, I did not make a specific geo based search, but since Google knows my ISPs location, it displays relevant geo based results.
Forum discussion at Search Engine Roundtable Forums.