Google's Gary Illyes said on Twitter "doesn't matter" if you use pipes or not in your title tags. Here is the exchange of tweets:
Truth is, I bet having them in your URLs don't matter these days as well.
But from 2010, John Mueller of Google wrote:
We'll generally crawl and index any accessible and valid URL, I'm sure you'll find many URLs with "pipe" characters in it in our index. That said, just because it's possible doesn't necessarily make it a good idea :-). Similar to using spaces in URLs, those characters may cause issues elsewhere, so personally, I'd try to minimize the risk of problems anywhere by avoiding those kinds of URLs.
Forum discussion at Twitter.